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5/11/20

what is virus and viruses protein coat

 what is virus and viruses protein coat


Viruses are nonliving cells outside the living body that are not able to synthesize protein and their energy, nor are they capable of independent replication and are so small that they are not seen by the optical microscope and called filtrates.
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what is virus and viruses protein coat

Viruses are distinguished by the following manifestations:

1. Viruses are molecules made of an inner core containing DNA or RNA (Not both). Covered with a protective protein coat called Capsid. Some viruses have an external lipoprotein membrane called the envelope, which is positioned outside of the Coat. Also, the viruses do not have a cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, or ribosomes.
2. Viruses must multiply inside cells because they cannot generate energy or synthesize proteins. Therefore, viruses are considered to be parasites inside a cell that is obligated to Obligate Intracellular Parasites because they can only multiply within living cells.
3. Viruses multiply differently from cell proliferation. Viruses are not subject to Binary Fission or Mitosis. One virus can multiply to produce hundreds of Progeny Viruses.

Size and shape of Viruses

The range of virus ranges in the range from 20 to 300 nanometers (some sources indicate that the size of the viruses ranges between 20 (- 1000 nm) The forms of the viruses are indicated in general terms such as balls, sticks, bullets, but in reality they are complex structures with a precise geometrical symmetry where the shape of the virus is determined in a recurrent arrangement
Repeating Subunits Forms a virus coat.

Viruses nuclear acids:  Viral Nucleic Acid

 The viral DNA (genome) is located genome) internally which is either a single or double stranded DNA or a single RNA or streak multiplier. Viruses are the only ones that possess a genetic material composed of a single DNA or RNA strand or a double streak. The DNA may be Linear or Circular, the DNA is always a single molecule, while the RNA is present as a single molecule or as multiple segments.
 Almost all viruses possess a single copy of the genome, that is, they are individual Haploid excludes the Retrovirus family, whose members have two copies of their RNA genome, that is, they double the diploid.

Virus wallet and symmetry: Viral Capsid & Symmetry

 The DNA is surrounded by a protein coat called the capsule Capsid is made up of modules called Portfolios. Each portfolio consists of one protein, multiple proteins that can be seen in the electron microscope as separate particles. The arrangement of the capsules gives the structure of the virus. Its geometrical symmetry, where there are multiple forms of symmetry in the Viruses wallets:
1-Icosahedral Symmetry Twenty faces
2-Helical Symmetry
3-Complex Symmetry

 The benefit of synthesizing viruses from identical protein units lies in two points:

1-Reduces the need for genetic information.
2-Self-assembly promotes It does not require any enzyme or energy.
 (Functions and importance of virus parts) DNA Virus: Viral Nucleic Acid
Virus proteins: Viral Proteins

Virus proteins perform many important functions:

1-The genetic material protects and interferes with viruses on specific receptors on the host (thickener) cell surface.
2-External viral proteins act as important antigens Important antigen induces modified antibodies and activates Cytotoxic T cells that kill virus-infected cells.
3-They act as antigens that not only induce antibody formation, but are also targets of this antibody (Neutralizer, meaning that these antibodies bind to these proteins and prevent the virus from entering the target cell.
4-These proteins play an important role in immune responses naturally, which helps to avoid virus infection (immunization). immunization).
5-Some internal viral proteins are synthetic proteins (e.g. capsular proteins in encapsulated viruses) while other proteins are enzymes.
6-When the virus is encapsulated, then the meat protein is present (Matrix proteins), which mediates the interaction between capsule and capsule proteins.
7-Some viruses produce proteins that act as antigens over them Super-antigens) are similar in function to the host of antigens produced by bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus.

 Viral Envelope: The Viruses cover

Cover is a lipoprotein membrane Lipoproteins consists of a membrane derived from the process of budding from the host cell membrane with a specific type of protein for the virus (where there are in addition to the wallet proteins and the internal proteins are two other types of proteins and both are associated with the cover). Sugar proteins are usually found in the form of spike-like protrusions on the outer surface of the virus, and its function is to bind to the host's cell receptors as the virus enters the cell.
Generally: The presence of the virus shell gives instability for viruses, encapsulated viruses are more sensitive to heat, detergents, and lipid solvents such as alcohol and ethyl than non-encapsulated viruses (consisting of only the nuclear wallet: consisting of nucleic acid and capsule proteins).
 form Superficial proteins in viruses, be they proteins or lipoproteins, are the main antigens against which the host directs an immune response to viruses (which are also specific to the type of pattern). specificity (often called serotype).

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